政府, 请别再监视维基百科
发布时间: 2016-04-06 16:38 点击次数:


SAN FRANCISCO — TODAY, we’re filing a lawsuit against the National Security Agency to

protect the rights of the 500 million people who use Wikipedia every month. We’re doing so

because a fundamental pillar of democracy is at stake: the free exchange of knowledge and


旧金山——今天,我们对国家安全局(National Security Agency)发起诉讼,以保护每月使用维基百科



Our lawsuit says that the N.S.A.’s mass surveillance of Internet traffic on American soil

— often called “upstream” surveillance — violates the Fourth Amendment, which protects

the right to privacy, as well as the First Amendment, which protects the freedoms of

expression and association. We also argue that this agency activity exceeds the authority

granted by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act that Congress amended in 2008.



们还认为,该机构的行动越过了国会2008年修订的《外国情报监视法案》(Foreign Intelligence

Surveillance Act)授予他们的权力。
Most people search and read Wikipedia anonymously, since you don’t need an account to view

its tens of millions of articles in hundreds of languages. Every month, at least 75,000

volunteers in the United States and around the world contribute their time and passion to

writing those articles and keeping the site going — and growing.


On our servers, run by the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, those volunteers discuss their

work on everything from Tiananmen Square to gay rights in Uganda. Many of them prefer to

work anonymously, especially those who work on controversial issues or who live in

countries with repressive governments.
我们的服务器由非营利组织维基媒体基金会(Wikimedia Foundation)运营,这些志愿者通过它讨论自己


These volunteers should be able to do their work without having to worry that the United

States government is monitoring what they read and write. Unfortunately, their anonymity is

far from certain because, using upstream surveillance, the N.S.A. intercepts and searches

virtually all of the international text-based traffic that flows across the Internet

“backbone” inside the United States. This is the network of fiber-optic cables and

junctions that connect Wikipedia with its global community of readers and editors.



As a result, whenever someone overseas views or edits a Wikipedia page, it’s likely that

the N.S.A. is tracking that activity — including the content of what was read or typed, as

well as other information that can be linked to the person’s physical location and

possible identity. These activities are sensitive and private: They can reveal everything

from a person’s political and religious beliefs to sexual orientation and medical



The notion that the N.S.A. is monitoring Wikipedia’s users is not, unfortunately, a

stretch of the imagination. One of the documents revealed by the whistle-blower Edward J.

Snowden specifically identified Wikipedia as a target for surveillance, alongside several

other major websites like, Gmail and Facebook. The leaked slide from a classified

PowerPoint presentation declared that monitoring these sites could allow N.S.A. analysts to

learn “nearly everything a typical user does on the Internet.”

(Edward J. Snowden)披露的一份文件明确指出,维基百科以及、Gmail、Facebook等几家主要网


The harm to Wikimedia and the hundreds of millions of people who visit our websites is

clear: Pervasive surveillance has a chilling effect. It stifles freedom of expression and

the free exchange of knowledge that Wikimedia was designed to enable.

During the 2011 Arab uprisings, Wikipedia users collaborated to create articles that helped

educate the world about what was happening. Continuing cooperation between American and

Egyptian intelligence services is well established; the director of Egypt’s main spy

agency under President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi boasted in 2013 that he was “in constant

contact” with the Central Intelligence Agency.

情。美国与埃及两国情报机构的持续合作得到了确认;阿卜杜勒-法塔赫·塞西(Abdel Fattah el-Sisi)

政府主要情报机构的负责人在2013年夸耀称,他与中央情报局(Central Intelligence Agency)“一直保

So imagine, now, a Wikipedia user in Egypt who wants to edit a page about government

opposition or discuss it with fellow editors. If that user knows the N.S.A. is routinely

combing through her contributions to Wikipedia, and possibly sharing information with her

government, she will surely be less likely to add her knowledge or have that conversation,

for fear of reprisal.


And then imagine this decision playing out in the minds of thousands of would-be

contributors in other countries. That represents a loss for everyone who uses Wikipedia and

the Internet — not just fellow editors, but hundreds of millions of readers in the United

States and around the world.

In the lawsuit we’re filing with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union, we’re

joining as a fellow plaintiff a broad coalition of human rights, civil society, legal,

media and information organizations. Their work, like ours, requires them to engage in

sensitive Internet communications with people outside the United States.
我们在美国公民自由联盟(American Civil Liberties Union)的帮助下提起诉讼,我们像其他组织一样


That is why we’re asking the court to order an end to the N.S.A.’s dragnet surveillance

of Internet traffic.
Privacy is an essential right. It makes freedom of expression possible, and sustains

freedom of inquiry and association. It empowers us to read, write and communicate in

confidence, without fear of persecution. Knowledge flourishes where privacy is protected.




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